Rhetorical Devices in the Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy

It is according to Aristotle that a speaker or writer has three ways to persuade his audience: The first kind depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second is on putting the audience into a certain frame of mind; the third is on the proof, or apparent proof, provided by the words of the speech itself.

One of the most influential people who made a memorable speech for the past century is President John F. Kennedy, a famous public speaker who wrote an inaugural address that contains a power to persuade a lot of people.

His well-known speech shows how his method of using the art of persuasive written or spoken discourse (Rhetoric) that an author or speaker uses to convey a meaning to the listener or reader contributions to the purpose or theme of his message for his countrymen.

Definition of Terms:

1. Alliteration : Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another.

2. Allusion : A brief or indirect reference to a person, place, event, or passage in a work of literature or the Bible is supposed to be adequately well known to be recognized by the reader.

3. Amplification : An expansion of detail to clarify a point.

4. Analogy : A comparison between two things in which the more complex is explained in terms of the more simple.

5. Anaphora : Repetition of one or more words at the head of executive phrases, clauses, or sentences.

6. Anastrophe : Inversion of word order to mark emphasis.

7. Antimetabole : Reverasal or repeated words or phrases for effect.

8. Antithesis : Contrast within parallel phrases (not to be confused with the ordinary use of the word to mean "extreme opposite").

9. Assonance : Repetition of vowel sounds between different consonants.

10. Asyndeton : Absence of conjunctions.

11. Chiasmus : The reversal of grammatical order from one phrase to the next.

12. Climax : Consists of arranging words, clauses, or sentences in the order of increasing importance, weight, or emphasis.

13. Conduplication : Resembles anadiplosis in the repetition of a precedent word, but it repeats a key word (not just the last word) from a precedenting phrase, clause, or sentence, at the beginning of the next.

14. Consonance : Repetition of identical consonant sounds within two or more words in close proximacy.

15. Ellipsis : Any omitted part of speech that is easily understood in context.

16. Ethos : Makes use of what an audience values ​​and believes to be good or true.

17. Hyperbole : Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis.

18. Imagery : Lively descriptions which impress the images of things upon the mind using one or more of the five senses.

19. Logos : appealing to reason in a measured, logical way.

20. Metanoia : The qualification of a statement to either diminish or strengthen its tone.

21. Metaphor : Meaning or identity ascribed to one subject by way of another.

22. Oxymoron : Contraditory terms or ideas are combined.

23. Parallelism : The technique of arranging words, phrases, clauses, or larger structures by placing them side by side and making them similar in form.

24. Paradox : A statement that appears to contradict itself but that turns out to have a rational meaning.

25. Pathos : Appealing to the emotions.

26. Personification : The attribution of human qualities to a nonhuman or inanimate object.

27. Polysyndeton : Insertion of conjunctions before each word in a list.

28. Repetition : Word or phrase used two or more times in close proximacy.

29. Rhetorical Question : A question asked for rhethorical effect to emphasize a point, no answer being expected.

30. Sententia : The punctuation of a point with an aphorism.

31. Syntax : The grammatical structure of a sentence; the arrangement of words in a sentence.

32. Tricolon : A series of parallel words, phrases, clauses, or statements.

33. Zeugma : Includes several similar rhetorical devices, all involving a grammatically correct linkage (or yoking together) of two or more parts of speech by another part of speech.

Rhetorical Devices That Are Present In The Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy:

* Alliteration

• "same solemn" (2nd sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• "man holds in his mortal hands" (1st sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

• "for which our forebears fought" (2nd sentence of 3rd paragraph)

• "to friend and foe alike" (4th paragraph)

• "Whether it wants us well or ill" (5th paragraph)

• "Pay any price, bear any burden …" (5th paragraph)

• "the survival and the success of liberty" (5th paragraph)

• "faithful friends" (1st sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• "colonial control" (1st sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• "Strongly supporting" (2nd sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• "break the bonds of mass misery" (9th paragraph)

• "sovereign states" (11th paragraph)

• "its writ may run" (11th paragraph)

• "the dark powers of destruction" (12th paragraph)

• "steady spread" (14th paragraph)

• "sincerity is always subject" (15th paragraph)

• "peace preserved" (9th to the last paragraph)

• "bear the burden" (6th to the last paragraph)

• "a grand and global alliance" (5th to the last paragraph)

• "high standards of strength and sacrifice" (1st sentence of the last paragraph)

• "Let us go forth to lead the land we love …" (2nd sentence of the last paragraph)

* Allusion

• "I have sworn before you and Almighty God." (2nd sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• "those who foolishly bought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside" (last sentence of the 8th paragraph)

* Amplification

• "Let both sides … Let both sides … Let both sides … Let both sides (Paragraphs 16 to 19)

* Analogy

• "those who foolishly bought power by riding the back of the tiger ended up inside" (3rd sentence of the 8th paragraph)

* Anaphora

• "all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life" (1st sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

• "not because the communists may be doing it, not because we seek their votes, but because it is right" (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• "To those old allies … To those new states … To those people … To our sister … To that world … to those nations …" (Paragraphs 7 to 12)

• "We shall not always expect to find them supporting our view. But we shall always hope to find them strongly supporting their own freedom" (2nd and 3rd sentences of the 8th paragraph)

• "both sides overburdened by the cost of modern weapons, both really alarmed by the steady spread of the deadly atom, yet both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that holds the hand of mankind's final war" (14th paragraph)

• "Let both sides … Let both sides … Let both sides … Let both sides" (Paragraphs 16 to 19)

• "Not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need – not as a call to battle, though embattled we are – but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out" (6th to the last paragraph)

• "the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even sometimes in our lifetime on this planet" (8th to the last paragraph)

* Anastrophe

• "Dare not" (1st sentence of the 4th paragraph and 13th paragraph & 3rd sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• "This much we pledge" (6th paragraph)

• "Ask not" (26th paragraph)

* Antimetabole

• "Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country." (3rd to the last paragraph)

• "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate." (2nd sentence of the 15th paragraph)

* Antithesis

• "We observes today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom – symbolizing an end as well as a beginning signifying renewal as well as change." (1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• "… not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of God." (2nd sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

• "Support any friend, oppose any foe …" (5th paragraph)

• "United there is little we can not do in a host of cooperative ventures." Divided there is little we can do … "(2nd sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• "Not because … not because … but because …" (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• "Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate." (2nd sentence of the 15th paragraph)

• "Let both sides explore what problems unite us instead of belaboring those problems which divide us." (16th paragraph)

• "not a new balance of power, but a new world of law" (20th paragraph)

• "Not as a call to bear arms … not as a call to battle .. but a call to bear the burden …" (23rd paragraph)

• "I do not shrink from this responsibility – I welcome it." (2nd sentence of the 25th paragraph)

• "… ask not what you country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." (26th paragraph)

• "ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man" (2nd to the last paragraph)

* Assonance

• "… the steady spread of the deadly atom." (14th paragraph)

* Asyndeton

• "We will pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe …" (5th paragraph)

• "explore the stars, conquer the deserts, eradicate disease, tap the ocean depths" (2nd sentence of the 18th paragraph)

• "The energy, the faith, the devotion" (4th to the last paragraph)

* Chiasmus

• "Let us never negotiate out of fear. But let us never fear to negotiate." (2nd sentence of the 15th paragraph)

• "ask not what country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country" (3rd to the last paragraph)

* Climax

• "All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even sometimes in our lifetime on this planet." (8th to the last paragraph)

* Conduplication

• "to help them help themselves" (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• "good words into good deeds" (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• "free men and free governments" (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• "the instruments of war have far outpaced the instruments of peace" (11th paragraph)

• "absolute power … absolute control …" (17th paragraph)

* Consonance

• "Whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall …" (5th paragraph)

* Ellipsis

• "This much we pledge – and more." (6th paragraph)

* Ethos

• "Vice President Johnson, Mr. Speaker, Mr. Chief Justice, President Eisenhower, Vice President Nixon, President Truman, Reverend Clergy, fellow citizens: We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom – symbolizing an end as well as a beginning – signaling renewal as well as change. " (Paragraphs 1 & 2)

• "In the long history of the world, only a few generations have been granted the role of defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. (4th to the last paragraph)

• "With a good conscience our only sure reward, with history the final judge of our deeds, let us go forth to lead the land we love, asking His blessing and His help, but knowing that here on earth God's work must really be our own. " (last sentence of the last paragraph)

* Hyperbole

• "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burdens, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to secure the survival and the success of liberty." (5th paragraph)

* Imagery

• "The torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans." (4th paragraph)

* Logos

• "old allies which cultural and spiritual origins we share" (1st sentence of the 7th paragraph)

• "new states whom we welcome to the ranks of the free" (1st sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• "people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery" (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• "that world assembly of sovereign states, the United Nations" (11th paragraph)

• "nations who would make themselves our adversary" (12th paragraph)

* Metanoia

• "Now the trumpet summons us again – not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need – not as a call to battle, though embattled we are – but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out, "rejoicing in hope, patient in tribulation" – a struggle against the common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease and war itself. " (6th to the last paragraph)

* Metaphor

• "We are the heirs of the first revolution." (1st sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• "Let the word go forward from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans …" (2nd sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• "riding the back of the tiger" (3rd sentence of the 8th paragraph)

• "the bonds of mass misery" (9th paragraph)

• "the chains of poverty" (1st sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• "evolution of hope" (2nd sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• "master of its own house" (last sentence of the 10th paragraph)

• "balance of terror" (14th paragraph)

• "And if a beachhead of cooperation may push back the jungle of suspicion …" (20th paragraph)

• "The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it – and the glow from that fire can truly light the world." (4th to the last paragraph)

Oxymoron

• "But this peaceful revolution." (2nd sentence of the 10th paragraph)

* Parallelism

• "We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom – symbolizing an end as well as a beginning signifying renewal as well as change." (1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• "born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage" (2nd sentence of the 4th paragraph)

• "Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burdens, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to secure the survival and the success of liberty." (5th paragraph)

• "Let both sides explore what problems unite us … Let both sides, for the first time, formulate serious and precise proposals for the inspection and control of arms … Let both sides seek to invoke the wonders of science … Let both sides unite … "(Paragraphs 6 to 9)

• "United there is little we can not do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided there is little we can do …" (2nd and 3rd sentences of the 7th paragraph)

• "If a free society can not help the many who are poor, it can not save the few who are rich." (2nd sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• "sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond" (2nd sentence of the 13th paragraph)

* Paradox

• "Only when our arms are sufficient beyond doubt can we be certain beyond doubt that they will never be employed." (2nd sentence of the 13th paragraph)

* Pathos

• "To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery …" (1st sentence of the 9th paragraph)

• "he graves of young Americans who answered the call toservice surround the globe" (7th to the last paragraph)

• "The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will light our country and all who serve it – and the glow from that fire can truly light the world." (4th to the last paragraph)

* Personification

• "With history the final judge of our deeds" (2nd sentence of the last paragraph)

* Polysyndeton

• "where the strong are just and the weak secure and the peace preserved" (9th to the last paragraph)

* Repetition

• "For man holds in his mortal hands the power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life." (1st sentence of the 3rd paragraph)

* Rhetorical Question

• "Can we forge against these enemies a grand and global alliance, North and South, East and West, that can assure a more fruitful life for all mankind? Will you join in that historic effort?" (5th to the last paragraph)

* Sententia

• "undo the heavy burdens … (and) let the oppressed go free" (19th paragraph)

* Syntax

• "My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man." (2nd to the last paragraph)

* Tricolon

• "We observe today not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom – symbolizing an end as well as a beginning signifying renewal as well as change." (1st sentence of the 2nd paragraph)

• "Not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need – not as a call to battle, though embattled we are – but a call to bear the burden of a long twilight struggle, year in and year out" (6th to the last paragraph)

* Zeugma

• "Now the trumpet summons us again – not as a call to bear arms, though arms we need – not as a call to battle, though embattled we are – but a call to bear the burden …" (6th to the last paragraph)

Encapsulation of Findings:

John F. Kennedy used 33 different types of rhetorical devices in his inaugural speech. The most dominant rhetorical device that he used was the usage of alliteration.

Conclusion:

Through intensive analysis, it can be seen that it is evident that he has a goal of obtaining the audience's attention to listen and to understand his points in a meaningful way in the fields of writing and speaking.


Insurable and Non-Insurable Risks

When we talk of insurance, we are referring to risks in all forms. Hence, having for an insurance policy is just a way of sharing our risks with other people with similar risks.

However, while some risks can be insured (i.e. insurable risks), some cannot be insured according to their nature (i.e. non-insurable risks).

Insurable Risks

Insurable risks are the type of risks in which the insurer makes provision for or insures against because it is possible to collect, calculate and estimate the likely future losses. Insurable risks have previous statistics which are used as a basis for estimating the premium. It holds out the prospect of loss but not gain. The risks can be forecast and measured e.g. motor insurance, marine insurance, life insurance etc.

This type of risk is the one in which the chance of occurrence can be deduced, from the available information on the frequency of similar past occurrence. Examples of what an insurable risk is as explained:

Example1: The probability (or chance) that a certain vehicle will be involved in an accident in year 2011 (out of the total vehicle insured that year 2011) can be determined from the number of vehicles that were involved in accidents in each of some previous years (out of the total vehicle insured those years).

Example2: The probability (or chance) that a man (or woman) of a certain age will die in the ensuring year can be estimated by the fraction of people of that age that died in each of some previous years.

Non-insurable Risks

Non-insurable risks are type of risks which the insurer is not ready to insure against simply because the likely future losses cannot be estimated and calculated. It holds the prospect of gain as well as loss. The risk cannot be forecast and measured.

Example1: The chance that the demand for a commodity will fall next year due to a change in consumers’ taste will be difficult to estimate as previous statistics needed for it may not be available.

Example 2: The chance that a present production technique will become obsolete or out-of-date by next year as a result of technological advancement.

Other examples of non-insurable risks are:

1. Acts of God: All risks involving natural disasters referred to as acts of God such as

a. Earthquake

b. War

c. Flood

It should be noted that any building, property or life insured but lost during an occurrence of any act of God (listed above) cannot be compensated by an insurer. Also, this non-insurability is being extended to those in connection with radioactive contamination.

2. Gambling: You cannot insure your chances of losing a gambling game.

3. Loss of profit through competition: You cannot insure your chances of winning or losing in a competition.

4. Launching of new product: A manufacturer launching a new product cannot insure the chances of acceptability of the new product since it has not been market-tested.

5. Loss incurred as a result of bad/inefficient management: The ability to successfully manage an organization depends on many factors and the profit/loss depends on the judicious utilization of these factors, one of which is efficient management capability. The expected loss in an organization as a result of inefficiency cannot be insured.

6. Poor location of a business: A person situating a business in a poor location must know that the probability of its success is slim. Insuring such business is a sure way of duping an insurer.

7. Loss of profit as a result of fall in demand: The demand for any product varies with time and other factors. An insurer will never insure based on expected loss due to decrease in demand.

8. Speculation: This is the engagement in a venture offering the chance of considerable gain but the possibility of loss. A typical example is the action or practice of investing in stocks, property, etc., in the hope of profit from a rise or fall in market value but with the possibility of a loss. This cannot be insured because it is considered as a non-insurable risk.

9. Opening of a new shop/office: The opening of a new shop is considered a non-insurable risk. You don’t know what to expect in the operation of the new shop; it is illogical for an insurer to accept in insuring a new shop for you.

10. Change in fashion: Fashion is a trend which cannot be predicted. Any expected change in fashion cannot be insured. A fashion house cannot be insured because the components of the fashion house may become outdated at any point in time.

11. Motoring offenses: You cannot obtain an insurance policy against expected fines for offenses committed while on wheels.

However, it should be noted that there is no clear distinction between insurable and non-insurable risks. Theoretically, an insurance company should be ready to insure anything if a sufficiently high premium would be paid. Nevertheless, the distinction is useful for practical purposes.


Liver Problems – What are the Symptoms?

Liver problems can range from mild liver congestion to a serious liver disease. Depending on the problem, many people are unaware they have a liver problem and may only have vague symptoms. One of the most common symptoms is chronic tiredness. These people generally feel lethargic and sluggish during the day, especially in the morning.

Due to the fact that the liver is one of the hardest working organs in the body and has many roles, there are a number of problems that can occur with the liver. The three main categories these problems fall into are:

1. Disease of the liver cells

2. Problems producing or secreting bile

3. Problems with detoxification

How do you know if you have a liver problem?

Tests are available through standard pathology labs that measure liver enzymes, total protein, albumin and bilirubin. Although these tests are called liver ‘function’ tests, they indicate whether the liver is damaged rather than how it is functioning. In other words, they are used to detect liver diseases, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis as well as liver cells being damaged from viruses, bacteria, alcohol, drugs and so on. These tests are not useful in detecting mild problems with liver congestion and sluggish detoxification. This is best done by observing your symptoms. However, it is important to consult your practitioner and have the tests performed anyway, just to rule out the possibility of liver disease.

An ultrasound can detect if there is a blockage in the bile duct. This is most commonly caused by the presence of gallstones in the biliary duct. It is estimated that around 10-20% of people over 40 years of age have gallstones and their presence is linked to a high fat, low fibre diet. The presence of gallstones in the bile duct typically causes nausea and pain. Bile flow can also be impaired through the liver, however this can be difficult to detect with standard testing.

General symptoms that can indicate a liver problem

  • Feel tired and unrefreshed when you wake up
  • Energy levels fluctuate throughout the day, with your tiredness becoming worse around mid-morning and/or mid-afternoon
  • Difficulty losing weight
  • Frequent headaches
  • Bad breath, digestive problems, bloating, gas, indigestion
  • Allergies and intolerances to foods that are worsening as time goes on
  • Reactions to many chemicals including cleaning products, petrol, paint, perfumes, bleaches, etc.
  • Problems digesting fatty/creamy/oily foods. They can make you feel unwell, nauseous or cause heart burn and reflux
  • A yellowish tinge to the skin, eyes and palms of the hands
  • Reactions to drugs, in particular headache tablets, antibiotics and anti-histamines
  • An intolerance to alcohol. Either you get drunk very quickly or you have bad hangovers that are out of proportion to the amount of alcohol you have drunk
  • Caffeine gives you a strong buzz and can keep you awake for hours
  • When you eat asparagus, you have a funny smell in your urine
  • Skin problems such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, general rashes, itchy skin
  • Hot flushes that feel as if they rise up from the torso towards the head
  • You frequently wake up around 1-3am in the morning
  • Please note: The information in this article is not intended to take the place of a personal relationship with a qualified health practitioner nor is it intended as medical advice.


    Equipment Recharge Room Design Strategies

    Facilities running only a couple of forklifts can generally change batteries on the go. Larger facilities operate more efficiently if they have a dedicated room for battery storage systems and recharging equipment. Proper room layout and use policies will greatly enhance productivity.

    Location

    Battery storage systems should be located near the highest concentration of forklifts. In most cases, that means a space in the center of a warehouse or other facility works best. When the recharge room is located in a back corner of the warehouse to get it out of the way, workers must waste time driving a longer distance for a recharge. Very large facilities may need multiple rooms located throughout.

    In some cases, forklift activity may be concentrated in a specific area rather than dispersed around the facility. For example a warehouse may store small, light items that are retrieved by hand on the east side, while larger loads that need forklifts are on the west side. Storage systems would be better located on the west side of the warehouse where the forklifts are.

    Safety

    Batteries release hydrogen. In normal use this is not a significant risk to workers. Although battery storage systems have many units in a concentrated area and hydrogen can build up in closed areas to explosive levels. The presence of rechargers gives a possible ignition source. Rooms should be well ventilated to ensure hydrogen can not build up.

    Batteries are heavy and workers can be injured during normal handling. Rooms should contain battery handling equipment that allows the units to be easily moved and stored without workers having to strain or bend to reach them. The room should contain an eye-wash station in the event of acid spills, and the path to the station should be kept clear of obstructions. People who need an eye-wash station are, by definition, not seeing clearly.

    Scheduling

    If all the drivers bring their forklifts in at the end of the shift there is going to be a big traffic jam at the battery storage systems. This is wasted time and lost productivity. Rather than automatically charging at the end of each shift, policy may be for workers to recharge only when charge indicators reach a specified level. Alternately, workers may be given appointments individually, by group, or by forklift type. Staggering these recharge appointments ensures everyone gets in and out quickly.

    Mobile battery handling equipment allows the units to be picked up out on the floor so forklifts do not have to drive into the recharge room. Drivers take these mobile battery storage systems to the forklift, extract the drained cell, replace it with a new one, and then move to the next one. Once the racks are full, the mobile rack goes to the recharge room so all units can be recharged at once.


    Positive and Negative Effects of Colonialism

    Colonialism refers to the action of taking command over a nation politically and exploiting in economically. The people that have power are actually labeled as colonists whereas the indigenous folks make up the colonies. In the 16th century, the European states took advantage of the technological advancements of theirs and colonized the weaker areas of the community. Areas as Asia, America, Australia, and Africa were underdeveloped and the European states exploited them with raw materials and cheap labor. Additionally, it provided the colonizers with a chance to exercise the power of theirs and open up fresh market segments. There are broadly 2 kinds of colonialism, specifically, settler colonialism where there’s large scale immigration of foreigners in the colonies as well as exploitation colonialism – the places where there are actually less colonists in the colonies but massive amounts of everything is exported.

    As negative as it may sound, colonialism has a merits. Let us talk about them in brief.

    Positive Effects of Colonialism

    The European nations benefited a great deal from colonialism. Nevertheless, the colonies likewise learned a great deal from the advanced nations. For example, education watched a totally new light when the advanced nations got over the underdeveloped lands. The method of 3Rs was created that centered on checking, publishing, and arithmetic. Literacy levels saw an increase in a sense of nationalism as well as intelligence was created. Additionally, with the spread of training came a consciousness about the land of theirs. The colonies discovered what gems they were living on. Additionally, they discovered the art form of defense. The colonies were helped by the colonists to protect themselves against some other enemies.

    The infrastructure of the colonies also underwent a radical change. To be able to facilitate luxurious living and trade of officers posted, the colonies were developed by the colonists. That lead to the betterment of living requirements of the colonies as well as taught them means of the civilized folks.

    Health was another segment which discovered a significant transformation. With the intrusion of Western folks arrived the Western lifestyle as well as health care. This led to much better life expectancy of the indigenous folks by bounds and leaps. Sanitation improved as well as the infant mortality rates went down. Along with medications, the Europeans also brought brand new technologies with them which included tools and weapons.

    Apart from everything this, Christianity rose. The colonists had a brand new market to push towards the religion of Christianity. The colonization even highlighted the colonies in front of the community. A feeling of forbid dance was abolished.

    Damaging Effects of Colonialism

    Only one of the main adverse impacts of Colonialism was slavery. Right from India to Africa, folks had been enslaved as well as used to the mother country. They were being pressured to leave their work and families with no pay. All of this deteriorated the psychological and also physical independence as well as ailments of the colonized places.

    Apart from being pulled to the European nations, colonized folks had been being created working on the own land of theirs as slaves. The Europeans acquired lands in the colonized places and also forced the indigenous folks to focus on them without pays.

    The traditions and countries of the indigenous folks had been trampled and berated. Sometimes the clothes of the indigenous folks was belittled. They had been forced to go along with Christianity and also talk the dialect of the mother country. Paganism and the beauty connected with it had been lost. They had been forced to purchase the goods of theirs and also consume the foods they supplied them with. In addition to all this, overseas invaders brought along a number of brand new diseases with them. The unprepared systems of the natives could not bear several of them that resulted in untimely deaths.

    The Europeans, particularly the British employed the divide and rule policy. For this reason, they made a number of new boundaries which divided the natives. People had been uprooted, kids and females harassed. The colonists never gave administrative articles to the indigenous folks. Nevertheless, several lower posts were given to a couple of selected ones. This made the chosen people think better and led to community conflicts and also rifts.

    The colonies had been ripped off the natural beauty of theirs and gems offered to them by God. Diamonds, spices, rubber, essential oils, ivory, gold, etc had been removed off the colonies and exported to the mother country. The colonies had no means of survival and earnings right now. They had been rendered helpless a totally reliant on the wretched colonists.

    To conclude with, it’s quite apparent that colonialism did much more bad than really good, though it was an important stage for the improvement of a great deal of regions. Quoting Ashis Nandy from The Intimate Enemy: Loss and Recovery of Self under Colonialism, “Modern colonialism won its great victories not so much through its military and technological prowess as through its ability to create secular hierarchies incompatible with the traditional order.”


    The Pros and Cons of eBay

    As effective as eBay is, it has its pro’s and con’s. In today’s world, people find e-commerce extremely helpful. With busy schedules and tons of work to accomplish in less than 24hrs, almost everyone prefers buying online. Hence eBay is extremely popular with the masses. Just the fact that one can buy stuff without moving a muscle is exhilarating. eBay is the most renowned online buying sites.

    Like any other site or online buying site, eBay has its own advantages and disadvantages. One has should keep this in mind while ordering online.

    Let us begin with the advantages:

    It is nothing but a simple process and is extremely easy. Your shopping spree is always only a few clicks away.

    eBay offers you a large variety of products to choose from.

    eBay is fun and very entertaining. You have the most unusual items to choose from. The graphics are neat and extremely colorful. The weird listings and the quirky listings, you will find are quite entertaining as well. If you are interested in any sort of unusual product you can normally find it here.

    eBay educates on the prices of various products in the market at the current time. You can learn the price of any product at any given time online. eBay lets you know what people are willing to pay for a given product in real time.

    Surprisingly enough, eBay most often than not refunds their customers, should anything go wrong with the product. Most of the sellers have return policy’s that they follow. Be sure to check out the seller’s feedback to determine if they do what they say they are going to do in their listing.

    Now let us look at reasons why eBay is not a very good option:

    You cannot be sure of the quality of the product you are buying. Almost all sellers will claim that their product is in excellent condition, on delivery you will find that your product is not exactly in good condition; scratches cannot often be seen in pictures.

    When you buy a product online, it is usually mailed to you. You cannot be guaranteed that the product will not get damaged when mailed. Very often, the delivery is extremely expensive and you spend a whole lot of money on it. Especially if you are in a different country from the buyer, you will need to pay international charges that are just all too expensive. Be sure to get the item insured by the seller when ever possible.

    Buying online steals you of the time at the mall and the cups of coffee with your friends. Though buying on eBay is not time consuming, it isn’t as much fun as your time at the mall. Somehow at the mall, you bump into friends, get to see and touch the products you want and just enjoy an evening out, whereas you can’t do the same with eBay.

    On the net, you can never be too careful of frauds. You almost have no idea what to expect. It calls for you to trust a perfect stranger. Always check the sellers feedback and ask questions to ensure that your sales transaction is fair for both parties.

    When selling products for a profit on eBay it can be very difficult to find products that you can profit with unless you use a membership based company to find wholesale products like The North American Wholesale Co-op Association (nawca.org).

    You will find that you get hooked onto it. Soon enough, you will be buying almost everything online.


    Cleaning Business Profits, Earnings and Salaries – How Much Money Can You Make?

    The cleaning business, while not the most glamorous of industries is neverless a fast growing multi-billion dollar business in the US and offers entrepreneurs unique opportunities to profit and earn a 'six figure' annual salary.

    Let's examine the cleaning industry and look at how much money it is possible to earn and what it takes to get to the 'six figure' level.

    How much Money can you make Cleaning?

    Most small cleaning business owners who work at it full-time as sole operators in their first year are able to earn between $ 20,000 and $ 30,000. Once they are able to take on employee, build up some local reputation and get good systems in place then a $ 100,000 annual income is not unrealistic and much more is possible for those who put in the effort.

    What separates the 'Six Figure' Operators from the Rest?

    Here are ten factors to consider that typically separate the high income earners from the rest –

    1) Different cleaning niche markets offer different opportunities. In some cities and states in can be easier to make it in the office cleaning sector and in other areas the carpet cleaning sector is more lucrative. It all depends on local demand and how many companies are catering to that demand.

    2) Start building your brand right from the start and view it as your company's most valuable asset.

    3) Develop and refine systems that make sure that your business runs smoothly. Constantly look into ways of increasing the productivity of your cleaning crews.

    4) Realize the importance of having a great sales system. Focus your efforts on converting an increasing number of leads into customers.

    5) Up-sell your clients with services related to cleaning, premium services or more frequent service.

    6) To scale up to the 'six figure' level you must learn how to hire, train and organize teams of workers to do the cleaning while you focus on running the business.

    7) Learn how to run successful advertising campaigns and learn about modern marketing methods such as networking, cross promotions with related businesses and 'word of mouth' marketing.

    8) Value your customers. Treat them as individuals and frequently remind them how much you appreciate their business. Satisfied customers can lead to referrals, and acquiring customers through this method is free.

    9) Have the right attitude. People sometimes stereotype cleaners in a negative way. There is nothing wrong with being a cleaner for a living but you should view yourself as a businessman or woman first and foremost.

    10) Research and learn continuously. Educating yourself about the cleaning business and business management in general does not stop once you set up your company.

    Could you start a successful cleaning business and earn over $ 100,000 a year?


    SEO Services

    Professional SEO services can lift your site above your competitors. According to SEO experts, they help business owners deliver their sites to top rank search engines. They ensure that the site has a unique setting that attracts Internet users. Search engine optimization experts apply the newest analytics service, which has a positive impact on a website. SEO companies are facing great competition in the SEO field. However, they introduce guaranteed SEO services to cope with the competition.

    These SEO companies have a strategy requiring clients to pay the major search engines (including Google and Yahoo) for monthly website maintenance. However, the company has guaranteed SEO services, where clients do not pay maintenance for that month.

    Google has remained top, since they have accurate methods and algorithms that deliver credible results to the searchers. However, Google has made it difficult for web developers to use optimization tricks in manipulating search engines. This is why SEO companies have the guaranteed SEO money refund.

    SEO companies ensure that guaranteed SEO services include the Google’s webmaster guidelines. Webmaster guidelines boost website rank and search activity. The services clients get from SEO experts are like marathons. However, clients should be aware that SEO tricks can have a great impact on a website and damage it-which is why they have to use the legitimate SEO strategies in order to receive impressive results.

    Although one may read a lot about the search engine ranking, no search engine optimization company can ensure that his or her site will get the first page in Google or Yahoo search engine results. Despite this, SEO companies have guaranteed SEO services and it is great when one signs with Google. The fact remains that SEO services assure clients that even if the site will not rank among the top search engines, the money will not be a waste because of the refund.

    Many webmasters are confused when hiring a search engine optimization SEO expert. Although SEO experts are believed to save time and improve webmaster sites through SEO strategies, they can also frustrate webmasters. Thus, webmasters must investigate the pros and cons of SEO services. The major tasks of the SEO experts are:

    – Ensure that the site is well reviewed in the content or structure

    – Provide Search engine optimization SEO advice on website development like use of JavaScript and web hosting

    – Develop website content using SEO services

    – Provide online business improvement campaigns

    – Target keyword research

    – Offer SEO training

    However, the webmasters can grasp search engine optimization SEO through websites. They will understand the benefits of hiring an SEO expert and what to expect from one.

    It is clear that when webmasters hire a search engine optimization SEO expert, they stand a better chance of maximizing their SEO services. When they want to start a new site it is good to look for web developers who have web design talent. The web developer will ensure that a webmaster’s site reaches the top search engine ranking like Google or Yahoo. The web developer also assists in improving an existing site.

    However, webmasters have to ask several questions about search engine optimization SEO including:

    1. Do they have previous examples and testimonies from past clients?

    2. Do they follow the guidelines from the Google webmaster?

    3. Do they implement the SEO Internet marketing services to improve online business?

    4. Do they have experience in the webmaster’s industry?

    5. Do they have knowledge of the webmaster’s country/city?

    6. Do they have experience in developing sites for international companies?

    7. What are the best SEO techniques to implement on the webmaster’s site?

    8. How long has the SEO expert been in web design?

    9. Does the SEO expert have good communication skills when making changes on the client’s site?

    Although the SEO experts provide great SEO services to their clients, there are a few who ruin the web design industry through their greed in marketing efforts and manipulate search engine rank. If search engine optimization SEO does not involve ethical practices, the site may have low visibility on Google or even be removed from the Google index.

    SEO and social media marketing ensure that one’s site has the best SEO Internet marketing, which means that their company can remain competitive in the online market. All the individual has to do is transition in their online business.

    SEO Internet marketing has major components, which develop the website traffic, and top search engine rankings. However, webmasters should be aware that these components are not easy to get. They must apply formulas and SEO strategies to produce effective results. There are many websites providing pertinent information about SEO and online marketing, and you can learn from them.

    If one’s business does not have SEO Internet marketing strategies, he or she will need help from SEO experts. They will have to find SEO expert websites, who will help the business owner’s site have many customers in online marketing. The obligation of SEO experts is to create exposure to businesses. They focus on SEO Internet marketing goals and provide top search engine rank like Google and Yahoo. However, to accomplish all this, web developers use SEO custom services, which have long-lasting SEO Google rank.

    SEO companies ensure that your site has all the SEO Internet marketing such as business improvement, localized product sales, high quality online generation and the rest. Webmasters are guaranteed to remain competitive in the online business if they stick with SEO experts. They will have all they need to ensure business success.

    Business owners who do have a business website lose massive amounts of money from online marketing. They should know that SEO Internet marketing mandates a business website, since it is a necessary online marketing tool. A website or blog is same as news ads, letterheads, or the yellow pages. However, the website must be user-friendly and just as advertisement is important, the SEO website is the same.

    It is true that 44% of small businesses do not have a website or blog. They are unable to reach 73% of Internet users each day. If your company has a website, customers can research the latest products the business owner’s company offers. SEO Internet marketing can help any company through their site to sell products. All businesses should have their own website, including companies using websites provided by insurance.


    What Are 1-877 Numbers?

    Want to know more about 877 numbers? The biggest misconception about 1-877 numbers is that if you call the same number with 1-800, you will get the same company. However this is not the case at all. Toll free numbers with different area codes are for totally separate businesses.

    What is so confusing sometimes is when various companies choose the same vanity number, but with different prefixes including 866, 877, 800 or 888. You may call an attorney in your city, but if you dial the wrong prefix, you can get a totally different person across the country.

    Like their 800 cousins, 877 numbers are completely free for the customer to dial. Along with that they provide many benefits to the end user, like ease of use, affordability and sense of professionalism.

    Let's back up a bit to find out more on these friendly digits. Toll free numbers actually date back as early as the 1960s, but their purpose was wide different than today's. The toll free number was initially created as a way to cut back on using phone operators. The process was also created to offer customers more options rather than collect calling.

    Along with that, they were normally controlled by the major phone companies. It was not until the 1990s that the FCC helped consumers have more leverage in this area and keep them 800 numbers even if they changed phone services.

    Later, 800 numbers associated with vanity phrases became widely popular. This newfound recognition fostered the need for more 800 prefixes. That's when additional area codes like 877 (circa 1998) came on the scene.

    As businesses and the global economy grew, the need for more area codes was never as urgent. What's more, longer vanity characters were in demand too. The newer toll free prefixes such as 866 and 877 became highlyought for their wide-ranging and longer vanity selections.

    Some of the digits in the area codes can be swapped for alphabetical letters, while standard 800 numbers can not. For example, with an 877 or 866 area code you can have the vanity number 1-US-RENOVATIONS.

    Vanity numbers even with the 1-877 toll free prefix appeal to marketers. First of all, they offer more vanity options, which become etched in consumers' minds more so than numeric value phone numbers. Plus, like any toll free number, they are easier to call, have branding benefits, and can increase response rates.

    A toll free number with an 877 area code is yours forever. Even if you move, you can still keep the same exact number. The same holds true for the other prefixes too. In the old days, a business that moved commonly lost customers.

    Even today, communicating your new information proves challenging. You can send out as many "we moved" reminders or emails and still get missed calls. E-mail can get snatched by spam filters and anything that even resembles "junk mail" in your regular mailbox usually gets tossed. So classically, people have viewed 800 numbers as an asset.

    All in all, today an 877 number is like any other toll free line, but you can get more vanity choices.


    Benefits of Bing and Yahoo Pay Per Click

    With today’s very competitive online marketing, it is important that a business creates a strong marketing effort to build qualified traffic to their website. Pay per click marketing is one great way of advertising on the Internet. It can bring a steady flow of traffic that can result to potential leads and new sales. Over the years, it has been proven profitable, especially if the business is targeting a segment of audience. Adding Bing and Yahoo to your Google pay per click marketing is worth considering.

    Pay per click campaign is based on keyword selection specifically designed to revolve around search terms that are relevant for the site. They are normally the ads that show up at the top and right corner of a search page. Generally, search engines do not charge when displaying these ads, but when a visitor clicks on the ad or the link which lands back to the business’ site, only then, is the advertiser charged.

    All throughout the pay per click marketing world, Google is leading all other search engines with their 67% market share. However, what most advertisers do not realize is that with the growing amount of traffic on Google, also comes a number of competitors, still making it hard to hit on search result targets.

    So, what is the alternative? Over the last couple of years, Bing and Yahoo pay per click have emerged as Google’s number one competitor. Although, Yahoo’s market share only comes up to 11.6% and Bing’s to 16.7%. When combined, they total of over 30% and this can still make a dent with Google’s share. And for any advertisers who overlooks these numbers could be ignoring a large population of potential customers.

    Other advantages of Bing and Yahoo pay per click, include:

    • Pay per click with Bing and Yahoo does not cost as much as with Google. – Many advertisers say that taking Google as their host for paid search is a complete campaign suicide, mainly because of their high costs. Relevant keywords being bid with Bing and Yahoo do not cost as much as $2 to $5 per click as with Google. For instance, one of the most expensive keywords in Google includes “insurance,” “loans,” “mortgage,” “trading,” which usually ranges from $30 to $50 per click. So, if you run a business about loans and need to bid on “house loans” keyword, a business can pay as much as $3500 a month for that particular keyword alone with Google. However, Bing and Yahoo give much more reasonable prices. They have the lowest cost per click, even with the most expensive keywords in AdWords that normally ranges from $0.10 to $2, but still lands in the first pages. More so, they offer long-tail keywords of four or more words, but still at a very reasonable price bid.
    • Bing and Yahoo have demographic advantages. – Although recently, Bing removed their feature to target ads by gender and age as they say they improve it to become more accurate. Bing and Yahoo still have a statistical advantage because 58% of their users are women, and their audiences are from an age group of 35-45 and 55-64, which are definite age groups that can afford to buy as much in the Internet. Furthermore, this is probably because Bing is owned by Microsoft, and they normally put default web browsers that come with the computer a user has bought, not unless of course, if they are tech savvy and knows how to change web search engines in their computers.
    • Bing and Yahoo allow their users to import campaigns from Google – most advertisers admit that they are always having a hard time running separate campaigns in Google, and with Bing and Yahoo as they do their best to update each. Now, AdCenter with Bing and Yahoo allows users to import their campaign from AdWords with Google, without even exporting a single file. This is perfect for advertisers who do not want to spend time editing, exporting, and re-uploading spreadsheets from one account to another.
    • Bing and Yahoo pay per click does not run on Internet Explorer alone – Recently, many adCenter users of Bing and Yahoo requested to expand their service outside Internet Explorer. Now, pay per click may also be run through Mac and Chrome users, including all other web browsers.
    • Bing and Yahoo for mobile – paid search through Bing and Yahoo is made easy as they launched Bing on mobile devices through WAP or GPRS connections. Not only will users enjoy “Find My Location,” applications, as well as driving directions and maps, but they will also be able to search for new information through their smart phones, and this means that pay per click campaigns will reach a much wider audience.
    • Bing and Yahoo have representatives to talk to for free, 24/7. – Microsoft has dedicated customer representatives who are specifically assigned to help Bing and Yahoo AdCenter users, even those that are starting with their Bing and Yahoo ads. They have a range of topics that they can help with, from starting up, to billing, managing campaigns, editorial questions, and campaign reports. In fact, they are even open to suggestions and comments, which is the main reason why Microsoft brought about the freedom for users to use their Bing pay per click campaign on other web browsers. More so, these representatives are always active in social media, so it could be easy to reach them in Twitter or Facebook.
    • Cross-Platform Analytic Reports – With Bing and Yahoo’s adCenter report, it becomes easy for users to compare keyword performance for their pay per click campaign with other search engines, so that they can make the most of their budget.
    • Potentially Better Return of Investments – any pay per click campaign is useless if it does not get positive results. Numerous advertisers have vouched that adCenter pay per click campaigns through Bing and Yahoo drove more traffic than keywords run with AdWords of Google, which significantly gives a better return on investment.

    Even with the 67% market share of Google, if combined with costly prices for their pay per click campaign, and with their other seemingly flaws, Bing and Yahoo still strike as a better alternative to Google, and as they make a dent to Google’s ad campaign, soon more and more advertisers will realize the benefits and power of what Bing and Yahoo can offer with the increase of their sales and rapid growth of their business.

    Additional Resources